An image that is 1600 by 1200 pixels at 300ppi will print at a size of 5.3 by 4 inches. Or it could be printed at 180 ppi for a printed size of 8.89 by 6.67 inches.
The higher the ppi value, the better quality print you will get--but only up to a point. 300ppi is generally considered the point of diminishing returns when it comes to ink jet printing of digital photos.
The term DPI is often used interchangably with PPI, causing a lot of confusion, however, DPI refers to the resolution of a printing device.
Related: Stop Saying DPI When You Mean PPI!